Improving China’s Municipal Finance

Christine Wong discusses the complexities of China's municipal finance system in a Paulson Policy Memorandum.


Muni FinanceUrbanization has been among the most important trends in China over the past three decades. It began with market reform and opening in the 1980s and has brought 500 million people into cities. During the decade of 2000 to 2010 alone, China’s urban population grew by 210 million, even when the country’s overall population grew by just 73 million. Shanghai’s population grew by 44 percent between the 2000 and 2010 censuses, from 16 million to 23 million. In Beijing during the three years of 2008-2010, its population grew by 500,000 each year.

Despite an inauspicious start, China’s spectacular economic growth performance seems prima facie evidence that the government has managed the urbanization process well enough. New cities have cropped up. Existing cities have expanded. City centers have been renovated and modernized, infrastructure built, and urban facilities appear to be keeping up with demand. Visitors to China fly into world-class airports and are whisked into town on multi-lane expressways. The cities are crisscrossed by wide boulevards, and China is setting world records in the pace at which subway lines are being built.

Behind this shiny façade, however, lies a more complex story. The system of public finance for municipalities is in tatters and in need of urgent repair. It encourages too much investment and imposes too little monitoring and control on decision-makers, producing inefficient, risky behavior that has brought a host of microeconomic and macroeconomic problems.


Christine Wong

Professor of Chinese Public Finance, Fellow and Chair, Chinese Studies, School of Interdisciplinary Area Studies, University of Oxford

Christine WongChristine Wong is Professor of Chinese Public Finance, Fellow and Chair, Chinese Studies, in the School of Interdisciplinary Area Studies, University of Oxford. Over the past fifteen years she has worked extensively in advisory capacities for the World Bank, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the Asian Development Bank, as well as through consultancies for the International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNCEF), and the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID). She is a member of the OECD Advisory Panel on Budgeting and Public Expenditures. Prior to coming to Oxford in 2007, Dr. Wong was the Henry M. Jackson Professor of International Studies at the University of Washington's Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies (2000-2007). Dr. Wong has also held faculty positions in the economics departments at the University of California, Santa Cruz; University of California, Berkeley; and Mount Holyoke College. Dr. Wong's research focuses primarily on China's public finance and public sector reform.

Topics: Economy